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TitleSensitivity of freshwater species under single and multigenerational exposure to seawater intrusion
Author(s)Venancio, C.
Castro, Bruno B.
Ribeiro, R.
Antunes, S. C.
Abrantes, N.
Soares, A. M. V. M.
Lopes, I.
Sodium chloride
Multigenerational exposure
Issue date2019
PublisherRoyal Society
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Abstract(s)Salinization of coastal freshwater ecosystems is already occurring in some regions of the world. This phenomenon raises serious concerns on the protection of coastal freshwater ecosystems, since many of them support and shelter a large number of species and are considered hotspots of biodiversity. This work intended to assess the adverse effects that salinization, caused by the intrusion of seawater (SW), may pose to freshwater organisms. In this study, three specific goals were addressed: (i) to assess if sodium chloride (NaCl) may be used as a surrogate of natural SW at early-stages of risk assessment; (ii) to identify the most sensitive freshwater species to salinity NaCI; and (iii) to determine if increased tolerance to salinity may be acquired after multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinization (induced with NaCl). A total of 12 standard monospecific bioassays were carried out by exposing organisms from different taxonomic groups (Cyanobacteria: one species, Tracheophyta: two species, Rotifera: one species, Arthropoda: two species and Mollusca: one species) to a series of concentrations of NaCI (ranging from 0.95 to 22.8 mS cm(-1) ) or dilutions of SW (ranging from 1.70 to 52.3 mS cm(-1) ). In general, NaCl exerted similar or higher toxicity than SW, both at lethal and sublethal levels, suggesting that it may be proposed as a protective surrogate of SW for first tiers of salinization risk assessment. Among all tested species, the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis racihorskii, the daphnid Daphnia longispina and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were the most sensitive taxa to salinization (EC50 <= 4.38 mS cm(-1) ). Given their position at the basis of the food web, it is suggested that small increments of salinity may be enough to induce structural changes in freshwater communities or induce changes in trophic relations. No clear evidences of increased tolerance after multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity were found.This article is part of the theme issue 'Salt in freshwaters: causes
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