Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

TitlePost-COVID-19 condition: where are we now?
Author(s)Boaventura, Paula
Macedo, Sofia
Ribeiro, Filipa
Jaconiano, Sónia
Soares, Paula
post-COVID-19 condition
long COVID
Issue date31-Mar-2022
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationBoaventura, P.; Macedo, S.; Ribeiro, F.; Jaconiano, S.; Soares, P. Post-COVID-19 Condition: Where Are We Now? Life 2022, 12, 517.
Abstract(s)COVID-19 is currently considered a systemic infection involving multiple systems and causing chronic complications. Compared to other post-viral fatigue syndromes, these complications are wider and more intense. The most frequent symptoms are profound fatigue, dyspnea, sleep difficulties, anxiety or depression, reduced lung capacity, memory/cognitive impairment, and hyposmia/anosmia. Risk factors for this condition are severity of illness, more than five symptoms in the first week of the disease, female sex, older age, the presence of comorbidities, and a weak anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Different lines of research have attempted to explain these protracted symptoms; chronic persistent inflammation, autonomic nervous system disruption, hypometabolism, and autoimmunity may play a role. Due to thyroid high ACE expression, the key molecular complex SARS-CoV-2 uses to infect the host cells, thyroid may be a target for the coronavirus infection. Thyroid dysfunction after SARS-CoV-2 infection may be a combination of numerous mechanisms, and its role in long-COVID manifestations is not yet established. The proposed mechanisms are a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on target cells, an indirect effect of systemic inflammatory immune response, and a dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis leading to decreased serum TSH. Only a few studies have reported the thyroid gland status in the post-COVID-19 condition. The presence of post-COVID symptoms deserves recognition of COVID-19 as a cause of post-viral fatigue syndrome. It is important to recognize the affected individuals at an early stage so we can offer them the most adequate treatments, helping them thrive through the uncertainty of their condition.
Publisher version
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:BUM - MDPI

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
life-12-00517.pdf613,4 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons

Partilhe no FacebookPartilhe no TwitterPartilhe no DeliciousPartilhe no LinkedInPartilhe no DiggAdicionar ao Google BookmarksPartilhe no MySpacePartilhe no Orkut
Exporte no formato BibTex mendeley Exporte no formato Endnote Adicione ao seu ORCID