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TitleHow long does adaption last for? An update on the psychological impact of the confinement in Portugal
Author(s)Costa, Ana Daniela
Fernandes, Afonso
Ferreira, Sónia
Couto, Maria Beatriz Azevedo
Sousa, Mafalda Machado
Moreira, Pedro Miguel Silva
Morgado, Pedro
Picó-Pérez, Maria
Mental health
Issue date16-Feb-2022
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
CitationCosta, A.D.; Fernandes, A.; Ferreira, S.; Couto, B.; Machado-Sousa, M.; Moreira, P.; Morgado, P.; Picó-Pérez, M. How Long Does Adaption Last for? An Update on the Psychological Impact of the Confinement in Portugal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2243.
Abstract(s)During the first COVID-19 related confinement in Portugal, there was a decrease in the levels of psychological symptoms measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (March to April 2020). Upon experiencing a new period of restraints in 2021, the psychological impact of this sample was assessed again (<i>N</i> = 322, two more time points). It was expected that the psychological symptoms evidenced in February 2021 would be at similar levels to those found in April 2020, leading to a transfer of adaptation. Contrary to our hypothesis, in the second confinement in Portugal there were higher levels of depression and stress symptoms than at the beginning of the pandemic. On the other hand, the maximum level of anxiety was observed in March 2020. It seems that our perception of the threats in 2021 was not the same as at the onset of COVID-19, or that knowledge was not disseminated to the general population to increase their mental health literacy and help them cope with the imposed challenges.
Publisher version
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:BUM - MDPI

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