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TitleSquaraine dyes as serum albumins probes: synthesis, photophysical experiments and molecular docking studies
Author(s)Gomes, Vanessa Sofia Dias
Boto, Renato E. F.
Almeida, Paulo
Coutinho, Paulo J. G.
Pereira, Mário R.
Gonçalves, M. Sameiro T.
Reis, Lucinda V.
KeywordsBarbituric acid derivatives
Barbiturate squaraine dyes
Fluorescence probes
NIR fluorescence dyes
Serum albumins
Issue date28-Jul-2021
JournalBioorganic Chemistry
CitationVanessa S.D. Gomes, Renato E.F. Boto, Paulo Almeida, Paulo J.G. Coutinho, Mário Rui Pereira, M. Sameiro T. Gonçalves, Lucinda V. Reis, Squaraine dyes as serum albumins probes: Synthesis, photophysical experiments and molecular docking studies, Bioorganic Chemistry, Volume 115, 2021, 105221, ISSN 0045-2068,
Abstract(s)Three barbiturate squaraine dyes derived from indolenine or benzothiazole, with different barbituric acid derivatives were prepared, characterized and photophysically evaluated by standard spectroscopic methods. As expectable for squaraines, these dyes showed narrow and intense absorption and emission bands in the Vis/NIR region. The interaction of synthesized dyes with bovine and human serum albumins (BSA and HSA) was also evaluated in phosphate buffer (PB). The results revealed that upon the addition of BSA or HSA the complex dye-protein emit more fluorescence, and the emission intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of protein used (0–3.5 µM). The titration tests allowed to calculate the binding constants, in an order of magnitude of 104-106 M, as well as the limits of detection and quantification in the nanomolar tens range. All dyes showed a good response to the interaction with both proteins, but the most pronounced envisioning their use as protein labeling was observed for the squaraine dye derived from the indolenine with a 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid moiety. The molecular docking studies revealed the existence of a binding between the compounds and four sites on the HSA molecule, where one of these four locations is a new binding site with which this series of dye interacts.
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